Approved Treatments for Angioedema
Berinert is a concentrated C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) isolated from healthy blood donors and packaged as a single-use powder to be dissolved and injected into the bloodstream during an acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) attack to restore functional C1-INH levels.
Cinryze works to replenish blood levels of the C1 esterase inhibitor to prevent severe swelling attacks in people with HAE. It comes in the form of a powder, extracted from human plasma and is given as an injection directly into the bloodstream.
Danocrine (danazol) is a synthetic steroid derived from ethisterone that has a structure similar to testosterone, an androgen or male sex hormone. Taken in oral capsule form, it helps to prevent spontaneous edema attacks in HAE patients by increasing C1INH and C4 protein levels in the blood.
Firazyr (icatibant injection) is a treatment for acute swelling attacks in patients with HAE. It also may be used to treat attacks caused by certain medications. Firazyr is a subcutaneous (under-the-skin) injection given into the abdomen that patients can administer themselves when they feel the first signs of an attack.
Fresh Frozen Plasma
Fresh frozen plasma is made from plasma, the clear part of the blood, and contains many proteins, including C1-inhibitor. It may be used in emergency rooms to immediately treat cases of life-threatening angioedema that do not respond to other treatments.
Haegarda is used to treat HAE by providing the body with the C1 esterase inhibitor it needs, keeping the levels high as the body slowly absorbs and processes it. Patients can self-administer the white freeze-dried powder by subcutaneous injection after dissolving it in water.
Kalbitor (ecallantide) inhibits the activity of kallikrein, reducing the release of bradykinin and thus decreasing the pain and swelling that occurs during an HAE attack. It is administered as a subcutaneous injection.
Orladeyo (berotralstat) is an antagonist of plasma kallikrein that is thought to treat and prevent HAE attacks by inhibiting kallikrein, thus reducing the amount of bradykinin. It is an oral medication.
Oxandrin (oxandrolone) is an oral synthetic version of testosterone, a hormone that some HAE patients use off-label to prevent attacks. It is thought to increase levels of C1-esterase inhibitor enzyme, although how it does so is unclear.
Ruconest (rhC1INC) is a recombinant human C1 inhibitor used to treat acute HAE attacks. It is administered intravenously by a healthcare professional, but it is also available in a self-administration kit that can be used by properly trained patients and caregivers.
Takhzyro (lanadelumab) is a human monoclonal antibody that targets kallikrein, stopping its action and lowering levels of bradykinin. It is given as a subcutaneous injection to prevent swelling attacks in patients with type 1 or 2 HAE.
Winstrol (stanozolol) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid available by prescription only to treat HAE. It works by increasing levels of the C1 inhibitor and C4 protein in the blood by enhancing their production.