What is HAE?
HAE is a rare genetic disease characterized by a sudden onset of swelling in various locations of the body. The first symptoms usually appear in childhood and become more severe in puberty and adulthood.
Enzymes called kallikreins control blood pressure by regulating how much bradykinin, a peptide that controls inflammation, is active at any time. When kallikrein are active, more bradykinin is available, which in turn causes an increase in the permeability of blood vessels and fluid leakage into tissues. Kallikrein activity is tightly controlled by a protein called a C1-inhibitor.
Patients with HAE either lack C1-inhibitors (type 1 HAE) or have dysfunctional C1-inhibitors (type 2 HAE). During an HAE attack, kallikrein activity increases, resulting in the overactivation of bradykinin and swelling in various parts of the body.
How does KVD900 work?
KVD900 is a small-molecule inhibitor of plasma kallikrein. The molecule binds to kallikrein and prevents it from activating bradykinin, reducing the permeability of the blood vessels and fluid leakage into tissues — and hopefully reducing or even preventing swelling.
KVD900 in clinical trials
In a Phase 1 clinical trial, healthy volunteers received single ascending doses of KVD900. Results demonstrated that doses as high as 600 mg were well tolerated. The concentrations of the treatment in the blood increased rapidly after dosing, reaching what KalVista considers “effective concentrations” within 30 minutes. Pharmacodynamics, or how the treatment affected the body, demonstrated that KVD900 inhibits kallikrein from causing bradykinin release for up to 10 hours following a single dose.
An ongoing Phase 2 trial (NCT04208412) is currently recruiting 50 type 1 and type 2 HAE patients in the U.S., the U.K., and Europe to test the safety and efficacy of KVD900 compared with placebo. Patients are randomly assigned to receive KVD900 or a placebo following an HAE attack. The primary outcome measure is the amount of time it takes until a traditional HAE treatment is required.
Results from the trial are expected in August 2020, at which point KalVista plans to consult with regulators and determine future clinical trial requirements to support filing a new drug application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Last updated: Jan. 17, 2020
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